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Swahili versus Kiswahili

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Kwa nini baadhi ya watu wanasema "Swahili" na wengine wanasema "Kiswahili," na neno lipi ni sahihi? Nini maana ya "Ki" katika "Kiswahili?" Kwa nini baadhi wanaandika "Kiswahili" na wengine wanaandika "KiSwahili" kwa kuifanya "S" katikati ya neno hilo kuwa kubwa?

Mara nyingi tumekuwa tukiulizwa kwa nini tunauita mradi wetu huu kwa jina la "The Internet Living Swahili Dictionary" badala ya "The Internet Living Kiswahili Dictionary." Ufafanuzi wake ni rahisi: "Swahili" ni istilahi ya Kiingereza kwa maana ya lugha ya Kiswahili, wakati "Kiswahili" ni istilahi inayotumiwa kumaanisha lugha ya Kiswahili kwa lugha ya Kiswahili. Tunapoandika kwa lugha ya Kiingereza tunatumia neno "Swahili" na tunapoandika kwa Kiswahili tunatumia "Kiswahili." Unapotembelea toleo la ukurasa huu lililoandikwa kwa lugha ya Kiswahili, utaona mara zote tumetumia neno "Kiswahili."

Suala hilo haliishii kwenye lugha ya Kiswahili tu. Wakati tunapoandika kwa lugha ya Kiswahili na tukawa tunazungumzia lugha ya "Kihispania" kama "Kihispania," lugha ya Kifaransa kama "Kifaransa," na lugha ya Kijerumani kama "Kijerumani," hata kama wazungumzaji wa Kihispania wanaiita lugha yao kwa jina la "Español" (au "Castellano," baadhi ya wakati), istilahi ya Kifaransa kwa lugha ya Kifaransa ni "Français," na istilahi sahihi kwa lugha ya Kijerumani wakati unapozungumza kwa lugha hiyo ni "Deutsch." Waswahili hawatumii lugha ya Kihispania wakati wanapozungumzia lugha ya Kihispania, bali haiwapasi kufanya kinyume cha hivyo kwani neno la Kiswahili kwa ajili ya Kihispania ni "Kihispania," kwa ajili ya Kifaransa istilahi yake ni "Kifaransa," na kwa ajili ya Kijerumani neno lake ni "Kijerumani." Wakati Waswahili wanapozungumzia lugha ya Kiingereza wakati wanazungumza Kiswahili, hutumia neno "Kiingereza."

Baadhi ya watu huamua kutumia neno "Kiswahili" hata wanapozungumza Kiingereza. Hayo ni maamuzi ya mtu na mtu kama unavyozungusha "r's" yako wakati unapotamka neno la Kiingereza lililoazimwa kutoka Kihispania (kama vile burro), au kutumia neno la Kiingereza katika mazungumzo ya Kiswahili kudemonstrate knowledge yako. Watu wako huru kucheza na lugha kama wanavyoona ni sawa, na wasomi wengi wamefikia uamuzi wa mwisho wa kutumia neno "Kiswahili" hata wanapoandika kwa Kiingereza. (Kwa mfano, Mradi wa Kamusi Hai una furaha kuwa mwenyeji wa toleo la mtandaoni la Kiswahili Grammar Notes, marejeo ambayo wanafunzi wengi wameyapata yana faida kubwa kwao. Tena, Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili inaitwa "Institute of Kiswahili Research" kwa Kiingereza, lakini unaweza kununua kamusi yao ya Kiingereza-Kiswahili kinachoitwa "English-Swahili Dictionary.") Hata hivyo tukiwa ni walimu wa lugha na waandishi wa kamusi, tunapendelea kutumia istilahi za lugha tunazozungumza na wala si lugha tunayoizungumzia.

Lugha ya Kiswahili inatumia mashina mbalimbali ambayo yanaunganishwa na viambishi awali tofauti. Matumizi mamoja ya kiambishi awali "ki" ni kuashiria kuwa shina linalofuata ni lugha. Hivyo, "Kiswahili" ina maana ya lugha ya Kiswahili, Kiingereza ni lugha ya Kiingereza, n.k. Viambishi awali vingine ambavyo mara nyingi unaweza kuviona katika viunganishi vyenye mizizi inayoweza kubeba "ki" ya lugha ni "u" kumaanisha sehemu inakozungumzwa lugha hiyo, "m" (au "mw") kwa mtu anayezungumza lugha hiyo au mkazi wa sehemu hiyo, na "wa" kwa ajili ya wazungumzaji wa lugha hiyo au wakazi wa eneo hilo. Tambua kuwa sio mara zote eneo la lugha linawakilisha mipaka ya taifa au kabila, kwani neno Uingereza ni maalumu kwa nchi ya Uingereza tu ijapokuwa Kiingereza ni lugha inayozungumzwa katika maeneo mengi ulimwenguni. Ni vivyo hivyo kwa neno "Uswahili" (au, mara nyingi, "Uswahilini") linawakilisha eneo lote la Afrika Mashariki kunakozungumzwa Kiswahili na wala si nchi maalumu, ambapo "Mswahili na "Waswahili" yanaweza kutumika kumwita kila Mwafrika Mashariki anayezungumza Kiswahili, au kwa undani zaidi, watu wote wenye mfungamano na urithi wa kundi maalumu la wakazi wa upwa wa Afrika Mashariki wa Bahari ya Hindi ambao kihistoria wamekuwa wakiitwa "Waswahili." Kwa ufafanuzi zaidi usidhani kuwa majina ya nchi zote yanaanza na"U" (kwa mfano USA ni "Marekani" kwa Kiswahili), na kiambishi awali "u" mara nyingi kinakuwa kama vile kiambishi tamati cha "-ness" katika Kiingereza, hivyo "Umarekani" kwa harakaharaka tunaweza kusema maana yake kwa Kiingereza ni "Americanness." Jedwali hii hapa chini linaonyesha vipi mashina na viambishi awali vinavyofanya kazi pamoja kuhusu lugha, mahali na watu katika Kiswahili.

 
kiambishi awali
ki = lugha u = mahali m = mtu wa = watu
stem -swahili Kiswahili = Swahili language Uswahili = Swahili speaking area Mswahili = Swahili speaking person Waswahili = Swahili speaking people
-ingereza Kiingereza = English language Uingereza = England Mwingereza = English person Waingereza = English people
-hispania Kihispania = Spanish language Uhispania = Spain Mhispania = Spaniard Wahispania = Spaniards
-faransa Kifaransa = French language Ufaransa = France Mfaransa = French person Wafaransa = French people
-jerumani Kijerumani = German language Ujerumani = Germany Mjerumani = German person Wajerumani = German people

Kama unavyoona katika jedwali hilo hapo juu, mzizi wa kila moja kati ya maneno hayo mara zote unaonyesha jina mahsusi (proper noun). Katika Kiingereza huwa tunaanza kwa herufi kubwa katika majina yote mahsusi (proper nouns), kama vile: English language. Swahili area. French person. Kama ukitaka kutumia mfumo huo huo katika Kiswahili itakubidi uonyeshe kuwa mzizi wa neno fulani ni jina mahsusi kwa kuandika herufi kubwa baada ya kiambishi awali kwa kila herufi ya kwanza ya jina mahsusi lenyewe kama vile: kiIngereza. uSwahili. mFaransa. Hata hivyo uandishi wa namna hii wa kuweka herufi moja kubwa katikati ya neno kwa kawaida hautumiki katika Kiswahili. Waandishi wengi wa Kiswahili huanza na herufi kubwa mwanzoni tu mwa neno, hata kama watalazimika kuandika kiambishi awali kwa herufi kubwa. Mfano wake ni kama vile: Kiingereza. Uswahili. Mfaransa. Hata hivyo kwa sababu zao maalumu kuna baadhi ya watu wanastahabu kuandika pia kwa herufi kubwa ya "S" katika neno KiSwahili na WaSwahili. Hatuwezi kusema mfumo huo si sahihi (ijapokuwa mara chache watu huandika "KiSwahili" bali hakuna waandikao "KiIngereza" au "KiFaransa"), lakini tunasema tu kuwa matumizi ya kisasa ya majina maalumu yanahitajia herufi moja kubwa mwanzoni mwa kiambishi awali. Ili kuweza kuona mifano zaidi, tembelea Google na andika "kiswahili" kuona ni uandishi upi wa herufi kubwa unaotumika zaidi.

Unaweza hata kutumia Google kwa Kiswahili.

 

Questions / Maswali

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