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Sources for Terms and Examples

Data in Kamusi is compiled from many sources. Much of the data consists of original submissions from Kamusi contributors. Other data originates from the sources below, which either have an open license, have granted us copyright permission, or have expired or no copyright. It is important to note that data in Kamusi is "living"; whether from contributors or external sources, entries are subject to improvement (revision, expansion, or deletion) at any time, meaning the data within Kamusi does not remain a pure copy of its original source.

To obtain the original data in its original format, please consult the original source. You may make use of the original data in any way that is authorized by its original license. However, your use of any data you obtain via Kamusi must adhere to terms of the license on the Kamusi Copyright page. We maintain this policy so that we can mix data from sources that require attribution and/or prohibit commercial use, alongside sources that do not have these limitations. You are encouraged to take advantage of less restrictive licenses, when available, via the links we provide.

This page links you to some of our major sources. However, as the number of languages in Kamusi continues to grow, we have found that maintaining all sources on a single page is a messy endeavor. Therefore, our current strategy is to list the sources for data on individual pages for each language. Please consult the pages linked from each dictionary search result to find the most up to date information about sources for the language you wish to know about.

Data for many languages has been obtained through the courtesy of PanLex. If we cite our source as "PanLex", please visit the PanLex Source List for more detailed information.

Our Swahili data has been modified from the Swahili-English Dictionary, edited by Charles Rechenbach and printed by The Catholic University of America Press in 1968. ISBN 978-0813204062, with permission.

Swahili Usage Example Sources

Many of the example sentences in the Kamusi lexicon are derived from the sources listed below. Elena Bertoncini-Zubkova contributed several thousand of the example sentences shown in the Kamusi lexicon.

Abbreviation Author Title
[Abd] Muhammed Said Abdulla Mke Wangu
[Kairos] Institute of Contextual Theology Andiko la Kairos: Tamko la Kiteolojia juu la Ghasia za Kisiasa Nchini Afrika Kusini
[Kez] Euphrase Kezilahabi Rosa Mistika, Kichwamaji, Gamba la Nyoka
[Ma] Freddy Macha Check-bob, Wanawake Wawili Gengeni
[Masomo] Ann Biersteker Masomo ya Kisasa
[Miiraji] Mohamed Jambein Al-Bakry Miiraji
[Moh] Said Ahmed Mohamed Utengano, Tata za Asumini, Tumba Iliyovia
[Mt] Ben Mtobwa Dar es Salaam Usiku
[Muk] Kajubi Mukajanga Kitanda cha Mauti, Mpenzi
[Mun] Claude Mung'ong'o Njozi Iliyopotea
[Ng] Peter Ngare Kikulacho ki Nguoni Mwako
[Rec] Charles Rechenbach Swahili-English Dictionary
[Sul] Mohamed Suleiman (Mohamed) Kiu, Nyota ya Rehema, Kijana Yule
[Ya] Saad Yahya Kuumeni na Kuukeni

Much Wordnet data has been imported from the sources in the table below. Note that Kamusi is a "living" dictionary, so data from external sources is subject to modification at any time. This table was copied from Open Multilingual Wordnet on 17 February, 2018, but may have been changed subsequently.
34 Open Wordnets Merged
Wordnet Lang Synsets Words Senses Core Licence Data Citation
Albanet als 4,675 5,988 9,599 31% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:als; (.bib)
Arabic WordNet (AWN v2) arb 9,916 17,785 37,335 47% CC BY SA 3.0 (+xml) cite:arb; (.bib)
BulTreeBank Wordnet (BTB-WN) bul 4,959 6,720 8,936 99% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:bul; (.bib)
Chinese Open Wordnet cmn 42,312 61,533 79,809 100% wordnet (+xml) cite:cmn; (.bib)
Chinese Wordnet (Taiwan) qcn 4,913 3,206 8,069 28% wordnet (+xml) cite:qcn; (.bib)
DanNet dan 4,476 4,468 5,859 81% wordnet (+xml) cite:dan; (.bib)
Greek Wordnet ell 18,049 18,227 24,106 57% Apache 2.0 (+xml) cite:ell; (.bib)
Princeton WordNet eng 117,659 148,730 206,978 100% wordnet (+xml) cite:eng; (.bib)
Persian Wordnet fas 17,759 17,560 30,461 41% Free to use (+xml) cite:fas; (.bib)
FinnWordNet fin 116,763 129,839 189,227 100% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:fin; (.bib)
WOLF (Wordnet Libre du Français) fra 59,091 55,373 102,671 92% CeCILL-C (+xml) cite:fra; (.bib)
Hebrew Wordnet heb 5,448 5,325 6,872 27% wordnet (+xml) cite:heb; (.bib)
Croatian Wordnet hrv 23,120 29,008 47,900 100% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:hrv; (.bib)
IceWordNet isl 4,951 11,504 16,004 99% CC BY 3.0 (+xml)
MultiWordNet ita 35,001 41,855 63,133 83% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:ita; (.bib)
ItalWordnet ita 15,563 19,221 24,135 48% ODC-BY 1.0 (+xml) cite:iwn (.bib)
Japanese Wordnet jpn 57,184 91,964 158,069 95% wordnet (+xml) cite:jpn; (.bib)
Multilingual Central Repository cat 45,826 46,531 70,622 81% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:cat; (.bib)
Multilingual Central Repository eus 29,413 26,240 48,934 71% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:eus; (.bib)
Multilingual Central Repository glg 19,312 23,124 27,138 36% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:glg; (.bib)
Multilingual Central Repository spa 38,512 36,681 57,764 76% CC BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:spa; (.bib)
Wordnet Bahasa ind 38,085 36,954 106,688 94% MIT (+xml) cite:ind; (.bib)
Wordnet Bahasa zsm 36,911 33,932 105,028 96% MIT (+xml) cite:zsm; (.bib)
Open Dutch WordNet nld 30,177 43,077 60,259 67% CC BY SA 4.0 (+xml) cite:nld; (.bib)
Norwegian Wordnet nno 3,671 3,387 4,762 66% wordnet (+xml) cite:nno; (.bib)
Norwegian Wordnet nob 4,455 4,186 5,586 81% wordnet (+xml) cite:nob; (.bib)
plWordNet pol 33,826 45,387 52,378 54% wordnet (+xml) cite:pol; (.bib)
OpenWN-PT por 43,895 54,071 74,012 84% CC BY-SA (+xml) cite:por; (.bib)
Romanian Wordnet ron 56,026 49,987 84,638 94% CC BY SA (+xml) cite:ron; (.bib)
Lithuanian WordNet lit 9,462 11,395 16,032 35% CC BY SA 3.0 (+xml) cite:lit; (.bib)
Slovak WordNet slk 18,507 29,150 44,029 58% CC BY SA 3.0 (+xml)
sloWNet slv 42,583 40,233 70,947 86% CC BY SA 3.0 (+xml) cite:slv; (.bib)
Swedish (SALDO) swe 6,796 5,824 6,904 99% CC-BY 3.0 (+xml) cite:swe; (.bib)
Thai Wordnet tha 73,350 82,504 95,517 81% wordnet (+xml) cite:tha; (.bib)

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These are the languages for which we have datasets that we are actively working toward putting online. Languages that are Active for you to search are marked with "A" in the list below.


•A = Active language, aligned and searchable
•c = Data 🔢 elicited through the Comparative African Word List
•d = Data from independent sources that Kamusi participants align playing 🐥📊 DUCKS
•e = Data from the 🎮 games you can play on 😂🌎🤖 EmojiWorldBot
•P = Pending language, data in queue for alignment
•w = Data from 🔠🕸 WordNet teams

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The Kamusi Project dictionaries and the Kamusi Project databases are intellectual property protected by international copyright law, ©2007 through ©2018, under the joint ownership of Kamusi Project International and Kamusi Project USA. Further explanation may be found on our © Copyright page.

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