You can Register Here ,   OR

Edit Engine: Noun Class and Verb Classifications

Archived Page

This is a page from the Kamusi archives. The information below may be out of date, and the links may no longer be valid. Please visit for current information. If you know of links or information on this page that can be updated, please let us know.

Data fields: Class (Noun and Verb)

A distinguishing characteristic of Bantu languages, including Swahili, is that each has a grammatical noun class system. Each noun is classified into one of eighteen classes that determine the pattern of plurals, adjectives, pronouns, and verb conjugations within each sentence. Learners often find that an indication of class helps them figure out how to use nouns correctly.

Entries also indicate when a verb entry is shown in a form such as passive or causative. ("Class" is the wrong word for verbs, but we use the term here for space reasons.)

Below, we show a full list of the classification options.

List of Noun Classes and Verb Classes -- in process!

Noun Class Number Example Adjective Prefix Verb Prefix Pronoun Of
1/2 mtu/ watu
(mimi/ sisi)
(wewe/ ninyi)
m/ wa

a /wa
(ni/ tu)
(u/ m)

huyu/ hawa
(mimi/ sisi)
(wewe/ ninyi)


3/4 mti/ miti m/ mi u/ i huu/ hii wa/ ya

tunda/ matunda
jiwe/ mawe

-/ ma
ji/ ma

li/ ya hili/ haya la/ ya
7/8 kiti/ viti
chuo/ vyuo
ki/ vi hiki/ hivi cha/ vya
9/10 nchi/ nchi (various) i/ zi hii/ hizi ya/ za

upande/ pande
uso/ nyuso

m/ various u/ zi huu/ hizi wa/ za
14 umoja m u huu wa
15 kuishi ku (kw) ku   kwa
16 mahali
pa pa pale pa
17 nyumbani ku (kw) kwa kule kwa
18 mfukoni mwa m mle mwa
Animate nouns (living breathing things) may take the shapes of nouns from classes other than 1/2, but usually have all the agreements of Class 1/2 nouns. In the Kamusi lexicon, we indicate animate nouns with "an" after the number that corresponds to the animate noun class pluralization pattern.
3/4an mjusi/ mijusi m/ wa a/ wa huyu/ hawa wa
5/6an fundi/ mafundi m/ wa a/ wa huyu/ hawa wa
7/8an kijana/ vijana m/ wa a/ wa huyu/ hawa wa

mbwa/ mbwa

m/ wa a/ wa huyu/ hawa


Close associates are people with a particularly close relationship to an individual. In the Kamusi lexicon, we indicate close associates that are not standard 1/2 (m/wa) nouns with "ca" after the number that corresponds to the animate noun class pluralization pattern. Close associates take the shapes of 9/10 (or 5/6 in a few cases) nouns, and have all the agreements of Class 1/2 nouns except the possessive prefix, which is y- for singular and z- for plural.

rafiki/ marafiki

m/ wa a/ wa huyu/ hawa

ya/ za


rafiki/ rafiki

m/ wa a/ wa huyu/ hawa

ya/ za

Verb Classification Example Explanation
applicative (prepositional)    

Edit Engine data fields and instructions


Kamusi GOLD

These are the languages for which we have datasets that we are actively working toward putting online. Languages that are Active for you to search are marked with "A" in the list below.


•A = Active language, aligned and searchable
•c = Data 🔢 elicited through the Comparative African Word List
•d = Data from independent sources that Kamusi participants align playing 🐥📊 DUCKS
•e = Data from the 🎮 games you can play on 😂🌎🤖 EmojiWorldBot
•P = Pending language, data in queue for alignment
•w = Data from 🔠🕸 WordNet teams

Software and Systems

We are actively creating new software for you to make use of and contribute to the 🎓 knowledge we are bringing together. Learn about software that is ready for you to download or in development, and the unique data systems we are putting in place for advanced language learning and technology:

Articles and Information

Kamusi has many elements. With these articles, you can read the details that interest you:

Videos and Slideshows

Some of what you need to know about Kamusi can best be understood visually. Our 📽 videos are not professional, but we hope you find them useful:


Our partners - past, present, and future - include:

Hack Kamusi

Here are some of the work elements on our task list that you can help do or fund:

Theory of Kamusi

Select a link below to learn about the principles that guide the project's unique approach to lexicography and public service.

Contact Us

We welcome your comments and questions, and will try to respond quickly. To get in touch, please visit our contact page. You must use a real email address if you want to get a real reply!

© Copyright ©

The Kamusi Project dictionaries and the Kamusi Project databases are intellectual property protected by international copyright law, ©2007 through ©2018, under the joint ownership of Kamusi Project International and Kamusi Project USA. Further explanation may be found on our © Copyright page.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.


Discussion items about language, technology, and society, from the Kamusi editor and others. This box is growing. To help develop or fund the project, please contact us!

Our biggest struggle is keeping Kamusi online and keeping it free. We cannot charge money for our services because that would block access to the very people we most want to benefit, the students and speakers of languages around the world that are almost always excluded from information technology. So, we ask, request, beseech, beg you, to please support our work by donating as generously as you can to help build and maintain this unique public resource.


Frequently Asked Questions

Answers to general questions you might have about Kamusi services.

We are building this page around real questions from members of the Kamusi community. Send us a question that you think will help other visitors to the site, and frequently we will place the answer here.

Try it : Ask a "FAQ"!

Press Coverage

Kamusi in the news: Reports by journalists and bloggers about our work in newspapers, television, radio, and online.

Sponsor Search:
Who Do You Know?

To keep Kamusi growing as a "free" knowledge resource for the world's languages, we need major contributions from philanthropists and organizations. Do you have any connections with a generous person, corporation, foundation, or family office that might wish to make a long term impact on educational outcomes and economic opportunity for speakers of excluded languages around the world? If you can help us reach out to a potential 💛😇 GOLD Angel, please contact us!